Baklava: A Global Sweet

You’ve probably had baklava at a Lebanese or Greek restaurant. Read on to find out how many different countries produce their own version of baklava

A serving of sweet, sticky baklava provides a great end to a meal at a Greek, Lebanese, or Turkish restaurant usually served with a coffee or a tea. You may even find varieties of baklava on the menu at German or Indian restaurants or places serving other European, Asian, Middle Eastern, and North African cuisine. 

So, what makes it so popular and why is it a traditional food from so many different cultures? Where does it come from, and what makes a really good baklava?

What Is Baklava?

Baklava is a sweet baked dessert or snack consisting of layers of buttery filo pastry soaked in sugar syrup or honey and sprinkled with nuts, often pistachios or walnuts. The top layers tend to be drier and flaky, while the bottom layers are soft and ooze syrup. It’s usually served cold and in small portions as it’s very rich. 

There are many different varieties of the pastry. Some include kataifi shredded pastry, rose water, spices like cinnamon and saffron, other kinds of nuts like almonds, milk, lemon zest, or glace cherries. It’s usually cooked in a large tray and then cut into squares or diamonds, but sometimes it’s circular or cylindrical. Whichever form it takes, it’s always delicious and the perfect way to end a meal.

The Origin of Filo/Phylo Pastry

It is popular in many Mediterranean, European and Middle Eastern countries, as well as in places where diasporic or immigrant populations from those regions have settled. So, you’re just as likely to be able to dig into a portion of baklava in the restaurants of Melbourne and Delhi as you are on the streets of Istanbul and Athens.

The origins of this delicious flaky Filo or Phylo pastry are not entirely clear, but it’s believed to have come from what is now Turkey, in the Ottoman royal kitchens of the Topkapi Palace in modern-day Istanbul (then Constantinople). Similar foods can be traced back to ancient Greece. As Turkey and Greece are neighbours, the cuisines of the two countries have heavily influenced each other.

Because it has spread around the world, it’s been adapted to local tastes and available ingredients. It also goes by slightly different names and spellings: baklawa in Arabic, baghlava in Persian, pakhlava in Armenian, and even siropiasta in Greek, which refers to the whole genre of syrupy desserts.

Types of Baklava

Just as there are many types of ice cream and sponge cake, there are many types of baklava. We’re not saying you should make it your life’s mission to try every type, but if you wanted to, you’d have a lot of fun. From Arab to European Mediterranean, here are some of the many delicious varieties around the world.

Greek Baklava

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Traditional baklava from Greece consists of filo pastry, walnuts, and honey. Simple to make, it is considered by many to be one of the traditional forms, from which other varieties derive.

Turkish Baklava

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The key difference between Greek and Turkish versions is that the latter is usually made with pistachio nuts rather than walnuts. These are baked into the layers of pastry as well as sprinkled on top. This recipe is heavy on the pistachios but lighter on the honey and spices. The Turkish option is also considered one of the most traditional types.

Lebanese Baklava

Rather than a honey-based syrup, Lebanese baklava (or baklawa, as it is spelled in Arabic) more commonly uses a sugar syrup flavored with orange blossom or rose water. Other Arab varieties include Iraqi and Syrian, which are quite similar

Russian Baklava

While you might not immediately associate the pastry with Russia, it’s a very popular dessert in the country. Russia is huge, and parts it border the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, regions where baklava is believed to have originated. The Russian version tends to be drier and less sticky than other kinds and served with powdered sugar on top. It sometimes includes raisins, too.

Persian Baghlava

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Persian or Iranian baghlava is made with rose syrup and might even be sprinkled with dried rose petals.

Armenian Pakhlava

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Armenian baklava, or pakhlava, is flavored with cinnamon and cloves, making it a warm and comforting dish. It also uses syrup rather than honey, as well as clarified butter.

Israeli and Palestinian Baklava

Israeli and Palestinian baklava are similar and make use of halva, a sweet fudge-like substance made from baked sesame paste. Halva is popular in the Middle East and delicious in its own right — but even better when added to the pastry. This recipe draws inspiration from the version popular in Jerusalem.

Ethiopian Baklava

The cuisine of Ethiopia, a north-eastern African country, is distinct but has also been influenced by that of neighboring Arab countries. Ethiopian baklava uses honey, melted butter, lemon zest, and vanilla essence

Balkan Baklava

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The countries of the Balkan region of south-eastern Europe, including Bosnia, Serbia, and Romania, also love baklava. This shouldn’t be a surprise as they neighbor Greece and Turkey. Romanian baclava, Serbian baklava, and Bosnian baklava (called ružice) are made with a simple syrup and mixed nuts.

Tunisian Baklava

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Tunisian baklava, like other types of the pastry eaten in the Maghreb (northwestern Africa) is heavy on pistachios but also uses other nuts, including almonds, hazelnuts, and walnuts.

Why not try a different twist on traditional baklava? Find out more about our Chocolate Baklava 

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